Massage Medical Applications Project (MMAP)
Notes on Training Outcomes & Goal Analysis
Five Steps for Brainstorming and Clarifying Goals
(adapted from Goal Analysis by Robert F. Mager for Life in the Pinball Machine)
- Write down each goal on a separate piece of paper. Keep the end in
mind—the goal is the outcome, not the process. Don’t worry
if the goal is abstract or not observable, you'll
clarify that in the next step.
- Write a list of activities and characteristics that would cause you
to agree that the goal has been achieved. Remember, these statements
have to be observable. Combine or delete duplicates and cross off items
that aren't necessary.
- Here you might see that some of your items actually describe
outcomes. Write each one down as a new goal on a separate piece of paper
and repeat Step 2 until you have only one goal with a corresponding list
of observable activities and characteristics on each page. Now look at
these goals and decide which ones best describe the issue you are trying
to address. Can you combine or eliminate any goals?
- Write a complete statement for
each of the observable activities and characteristics of each goal. These
statements should describe observables (quality and/or quantity) that
you will consider acceptable. These can be positive (must be present)
or negative (not present).
- Test each statement from Step 4 with the question, “If someone
performed this activity or characteristic, is the goal achieved?” If
you can answer yes to each item on the list, then you are finished. If
not, you have left something out.
Work in Progress
I have started to play around with defining the fields for capturing
outcome definitions. This XML file on entry-level
both very. very rough and preliminary and will require you to look at field-tags
(i.e. no style-sheet yet), but it does capture some thoughts in progress.
This is a follow-up to a post I made to the Bodywork_Politics email-list.
The essence of that post is:
If there is core knowledge that the state deems essential, it should either
be stipulated as outcomes or left to the regulatory agency to stipulate.
This could be phrased like, "The regulatory agency may stipulate
inclusion of specific training outcomes based on evidence of significant
public benefit". That provides for better flexibility and leaves
specific implementation up to those teaching. Potential examples of outcome
- Curricula shall address competence in working within universal precautions
and include knowledge of means of transmission and prevention of transmission
of blood borne pathogens (biannual refresher required).
- Curricula shall address competence in recognition of symptoms of stroke
and heart attack (biannual refresher required).
- Curricula shall address
competence in recognition of symptoms consistent with deep vein thrombosis
(biannual refresher required).
- Curricula shall address understanding
of the potential for triggering a cervical arterial dissection from
normal activities and/or movements and the recognition of potential
subsequent symptoms (biannual refresher required).
shall include understanding of grounds for referral for diagnosis
and/or immediate accessing of the emergency medical system.
shall address competence in basic basic anatomy and physiology of
muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints sufficient for a practitioner
to position joints and access these tissues effectively and safely.
that I've also addressed implicitly the issue of CEs above. They should
be designed to ensure that critical specific information is periodically
refreshed. For example, as a first aid volunteer at work, I have requirements
for biannual refreshers in CPR and in blood borne pathogens. The latter
course is a 30-minute (or so) web-based course (Yea for distance education!).
- If you don't know enough to define observable outcomes, you don't know
enough to define a meaningful training requirement.
- High standards require the specification of observable changes into practice,
not the specification of gluteal (i.e. seat-bound) classroom hours in
a vaguely/broadly defined subject area.
- If the requirement doesn't guarantee a uniform outcome specification based
on a clear public benefit, it should not be defined in law or regulation.